This site discusses phimosis in its specific forms of phimotic ring, frenulum breve, adhesions or skinbridges. During erection these conditions inhibit the relationship between foreskin and glans. This functionally restricts the erection, and thus has an effect on the sexuality. With our culture's attitudes on health care, it would be appropriate to encourage early prevention.

Jan 2021 : Please read the new summary.


Part One:
Introduction (Grewel)
Basic Human Studies
Part Two:
Modern Treatment (Z plasty etc.)
Ancient treatment (Bryk, Luo Rites)
The Animal Studies

Ancient Treatment

Bryk speculates on the origin of the traditional operation however he misunderstood the frenulum.
Felix Bryk
Die Beschneidung bei Mann und Weib - (German text)
Circumcision among Men and Women
Gustav Feller. New Brandenburg. (1931) p.175 - 6
"In the case of a short frenulum, by which the glans of the penis is drawn crooked during erection, emission is made difficult"

"The boy ... experiences a disappointement, he thought the foreskin ...would retract further and notices now that the frenulum ... stops any further retraction. The idea occurs to him to cut through the frenulum. Perhaps as well he had previously heard from his fellow sufferers that due to its shortness it can sometimes rips during the sexual act.
The Kayapo wear a cap, which they fasten onto the prepuce, after they have cut through the frenulum with a taqua splinter. (Kissenberth after Koch, p.110).
In the literature, cases of severing of the frenulum are known to me among the inhabitants of the Loyalty Islands (Sarasin) and, as just mentioned, among the Tahitians."

The Luo of East Africa receive top marks for cultural enterprise and a creative approach in treatment for "The Onduong".

Dan Omondi K'Aoko
The Luo Circumcision Rite (1986)
Frejos Designgraphics, P.O. Box 12258, Nairobi, Kenya
(unfortunately this site has been deleted).

"Okoko Method (Soldier Ant Method)
The Okoko is the male soldier ant. ... The Okoko would then be caught and its incisor like proboscis placed squarely on the connective tissue that joins the penial foreskin to the male organ. The Okoko would then tighten grip to sever through the connective tissue ... the Okoko could cling to the connective tissue and take its time about severing it."

"The Wino Method (Flywhisk Method)
In this flywhisk strand method, the operation procedure involved the presence of a thorn known as Kuth Alak Tar and one long strand from a flywhisk called Wino. ... The thorn is first used to pierce through the connective tissue joining the foreskin to the male organ. As the thorn pierces further, blood drips from the mutilated part. The Wino is then passed through the opening made by the thorn, and knotted tightly round the circumference of the tissue. ... "

"The knotted strand would slowly cut through the tissue overnight after two days, or more, depending on the individuals.... unmelted animal ghee known as Mor-Dhiang' is applied to the connective tissue as long as it is knotted. The application of this ghee is thought to act as the modern petroleum jelly substitute, to render the connective tissue soft to accelerate the severing process of the knotted flywhisk strand."

"The Opila Method (Sugarcane Rind Method)
In some different parts of Luoland, the sheath-like cover of the millet stalk was widely preferred to than that of sugar cane. ... In the Opila method the thorn Kuth Alaktar was first used to pierce through the connective tissue of the male organ. But before the thorn could be pulled out, the sharp blade is used to incise through up to the thorn. The thorn was therefore an anvil on which the blade of the Opila stopped in order to avoid hideous mutilation of the male organ."

"Tuchruok Method (The Piercing Method)
In both the Wino and the Opila methods, the thorn was used in preparation while in the Tuchruok method, it is the only tool used. ... The thorn is used to pierce through the Onduong. Since the hind part of the thorn is generally larger than the fore part, the sharp part is pushed further, thereby widening the 'opening'. The widening process continues until the Onduong is finally severed."

One usefulness of this custom is clearly
"... During the Ndaria girls from the nearly married girl's (Miaha) village arrives at the home where the Miaha is married. This was for the purpose of witnessing the Ndaria and also to return back with one of the bloody beddings as evidence of the Miaha's freshness and virginity. During this occasion, the hymen of the virgin is broken."

"In this case, if Ridhruok and the other methods were not observed by the man, the narrow hymen of the girl performs the act. This causes the bleeding of both the man and the girl, which is diametrically opposed to the purpose of the Ndaria which sought to prove the virginity of the new wife, but not the uncircumcised condition of the husband. For the husband to prove that he too was uncircumcised on the bridal bed was a stigma that could stick on his personality for the rest of his life."

"Such accidents have been known to break the Onduong by force during the breaking of the virginity."